The Psychology of

Sales Call Reluctance

by George W. Dudley

& Shannon L. Goodson

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Call Reluctance®

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No organization, large or small, could want a more distinguished board. The members of this group are highly qualified. Each brings world class skills, accomplishments, scholarship, perspective and practical experience.

—BSRP CEO Shannon L. Goodson


Kebreten Manaye, M.D.

Professor, Dept. Of Physiology and Biophysics, College of Medicine,

Howard University Neuroscience

Dr. Manaye is a medical doctor and research scientist whose published research topics include brain-based disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Her medical background, enriched by an international perspective, adds balance to BSRP's primarily psychological orientation. Additionally, Dr. Manaye's status as a neuroscience scholar-physician underscores BSRP's interest in integrating, whenever possible, mainstream brain-based research into its diagnostic models and remedial procedures.

One of Dr. Manaye's assignments is to prepare, conduct and present research at scientific conventions and to inaugurate some of the medically oriented call reluctance research projects conceived by BSRP co-founder George W. Dudley in the 1980's.

Clive A Fletcher, Ph.D.

Emeritus Professor of Occupational Psychology, Goldsmith’s College, University of London;

Managing Director of Personnel Assessment Ltd.

Organizational Psychology, 360 Degree Assessment

Dr. Fletcher, a fellow of the British Psychological Society, is professor of Occupational Psychology at Goldsmiths' College, University of London. He has been Chairman of the Department of Psychology twice, and has served on the Test (Psychological) Standards Committee.

Dr. Fletcher has been an advisor to the Department of Health (U.K.), Metropolitan Police, Defence Research Agency, and the Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology. He has published numerous scholarly articles related to his primary interest, organizational psychology. His areas of study include the utility of assessment centers, individual and group assessment methods, and other issues associated with selection and assessment in organizations.

His editorial appointments include the International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Personnel Management, Psychometric Test Series in Personnel Management and Consulting Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Counseling Psychology. Dr. Fletcher has co-authored many books, including Selection Interview Training Manual, Staff Appraisal and Development, Facing the Interview, Individual Differences: Theories and Applications, and Psychological Testing. He has contributed chapters to many other university level textbooks, and has been a consultant to high level U.K. organizations including British Aerospace, the Civil Service Selection Board, the Home Office, British Telecom, Shell International, ICL, Galaxo, Lucas, the British Army, Northern Telecom, Arthur Andersen, Ernst and Young and the Bank of England.

Howard Gershenfeld, M.D., Ph.D.

Dept. Of State, U.S. Embassy, Accra, Ghana

CBT, Behavioral Genetics

Dr. Gershenfeld is Board Certified (Accredited) in Psychiatry. He received his M.D. and Ph.D. in Cancer Biology-Molecular Immunology at Stanford University, where he also completed his medical residency in psychiatry before serving as Senior Staff Fellow in Molecular Pharmacology in the Clinical Neuroscience Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health.

Dr. Gershenfeld's primary research orientation centers on individual differences in behavior and genetic vulnerability to psychiatric illness. Over the last several years, Dr. Gershenfeld's research activities have included the genetic dissection of innate fear and exploratory behavior in mice; investigating a drug-induced seizure model; genetically testing the Na, K-ATPase hypothesis for bipolar disorder; and studying brain/behavior effects of null mutations in transgenic mice. Clinically, Dr. Gershenfeld's interests include anxiety disorders, psychopharmacology, behavioral medicine, Cognitive-Behavioral therapies and how changes occur in psychotherapeutic settings.

Dr. Gershenfeld is a member of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America and the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy. He currently serves on the editorial board of the Journal Cognitive and Behavioral Practice.

Ira H. Bernstein, Ph.D.

Professor, Dept. Of Clinical Sciences and the School of Public Health

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

Psychometric Theory, Sensation/Perception

Dr. Bernstein is a familiar name to psychologists (with advanced formal education) in many nations. A Fellow of the American Psychological Association (Divisions 3, Member Divisions 5 and 9), he is co-author (with the late J. C. Nunnally) of one of the standard graduate level university textbooks on psychological testing, Psychometric Theory. It is considered by many psychologists to be a classic.

Dr. Bernstein is Professor, Dept. Of Clinical Sciences and the School of Public Health at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. He is a member of the Psychonomic Society, a Fellow of the Society for Personality Assessment, and former president of the Society for Applied Multivariate Research. He has been honored with the Certificate of Merit (American Medical Society) and given an award by the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology. Dr. Bernstein is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Texas - Arlington. He has been Consulting Editor for Perception and Psychophysics, Journal of Experimental Psychology, Human Performance and Perception, Behavior Research Methods, and Instruments and Computers, and a reviewer for various scholarly journals and publishing organizations. He has published more than 75 scholarly articles in his primary areas of interest: cognitive psychology, psychometrics and methodologically-oriented issues. He also wrote the Study Guide to Accompany Ferguson's Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education and articles for Security Magazine, the trade publication for the U.S. Security Industry.

Dr. Bernstein has lectured and given scholarly presentations at numerous academic venues, including Driebergen (Netherlands); Stockholm, Sweden; Cambridge University; the University of Amsterdam; Seoul, South Korea; National Chechung University, Republic of China; and Padua, Italy.

Del L. Paulhus, Ph.D.

Professor of Psychology, University of British Columbia

Self-presentation, Questionnaire Response Styles (Self-deception, Impression Management)

Del Paulhus received his PhD from Columbia University and is now Professor of Psychology at the University of British Columbia.  He also spent sabbatical years at UC Berkeley and UC Davis.  Much of his research is related to issues of self-presentation although he has also contributed to the literatures on dark personalities, acquaintanceship, and conceptions of intelligence. Over his career, he has developed a number of widely-used measures including the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, the Spheres of Control inventory, the Over-Claiming Questionnaire, and the Self-Report Psychopathy scale.

George W. Dudley, M.S.


Influence of fear on the behavior of people at work

George W. Dudley is the director of Behavioral Sciences Research Press’s (BSRP) Scientific Advisory Board and co-founder of BSRP. BSRP is the organizational hub which manages a select international network of professional sales and service providers who have been licensed to market BSRP’s array of special-purpose assessment, research, training and development applications.

Dudley holds both bachelor's and master's degrees in research psychology. His work is extensively published in the popular and trade press. Each year, Dudley presents his scholarly and scientific work in addition to numerous radio and television appearances.

His pioneering research on the influence of fear on the performance of people at work—especially sales professionals—is recognized internationally. Many of the psychological constructs he discovered such as “Recruitment Reluctance,” the twelve types of “Sales Call Reluctance®” and “Hyper Professionalism” have become part of the standard lexicon of growth-oriented organizations.

Dudley and co-author Shannon L. Goodson have written several psychological tests including the Sales Preference Questionnaire™, Recruiting Preferences Measure™, CareerStyles Inventory™, Selling Styles Profile Analysis™ and Meeting People Questionnaire™. Dudley’s research papers—many based on very large international samples—span a variety of topics including: the relative tendency of salespeople in different countries to exaggerate their answers when completing psychological tests, differences in motivation to sell by country, how sales call reluctance® differs from social phobia, low self-esteem, anxiety and other more generic diagnoses, and which selling styles tend to be most susceptible to sales call reluctance®.

Dudley’s biography is included in honorary publications such as Who's Who in Science and Engineering and Who's Who in America.

Shannon L. Goodson, M.S.

CEO & Author

Women and visibility management in the workplace

Shannon L. Goodson is co-founder and CEO of Behavioral Sciences Research Press. Although she has both bachelor's and master's degrees in psychology, her natural business ability made her the guiding force behind the successful growth and development of BSRP's product array while simultaneously expanding international operations (which now include more than a dozen countries).

BSRP was chartered in 1979 with a total capitalization of US$50. Under Goodson's direction, the company now internationally generates estimated annual retail sales exceeding $10 million through a small but growing network of professional associates. Goodson has published scholarly articles and presented scientific papers dealing with women's issues, sales productivity, psychological testing, and other topics. She is listed in several honorary publications, including Who's Who of American Women.